Monographs

# Monographs Introductions
A1

Monitoring Air Quality

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The Sarnia-Lambton Environmental Association operates a system of six monitoring stations; these stations analyze air in a 20 km. corridor that extends from Pt. Edward to Courtright. The Ontario Ministry of Environment also operates four monitoring stations in Lambton County and one in Kent County. Individual industries also operate a number of monitors. Monitoring results are helpful is assessing the extent to which air quality is affected by pollutants from industry, from the Lambton community itself and from distant sources; results assist in developing ways to reduce pollution.
A2

Ground Level Ozone – Production Effects

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Ground level ozone, a major component of smog, is one of the more serious air quality problems in Canada. In summer months, more than one-half of all Canadians are regularly exposed to ozone concentrations, which are known to have adverse health effects; ozone may alsDownload PDFo cause significant damage to agricultural crops.
A3

Controlling Acidic Emissions

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Precipitation over eastern North America and much of Europe is considerably acidic, due mainly to concentrations of sulphuric and nitric acids which are produced when sulphur and nitrogen oxides (acidic emissions) undergo atmospheric rDownload PDFeactions. Normal rainfall, in most of the world is slightly acidic – pH 5.6 to 5.0.
A4

Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere

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Particulate matter is a general term used to describe mixtures of solid particles and liquid droplets in air. These particles originate from both stationary and mobile sources and also from natural sources. Opinions vary on the extent to which our health is affected by particulate matter and also by co-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone.
A5

Emission Controls – Product Transfer – Storage

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Photochemical smog is produced when nitrogen oxides react with volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. Photochemical smog is a common summer-time reminder that emisSLEA-Monograph-A5sions to the atmosphere must be controlled.
L1

Geology of Lambton County

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Geology is the study of the earth, its history and its life as recorded in the rocks. Extensive studies of the geology and hydrogeology of this area provide a valuable information basis which is necessary to have success in challenging areas such as: maintenance of safe drinking water; disposal of municipal and industrial wastes; and, deep subsurface storage of petroleum products.
L2

Drinking Water Sources

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Approximately 90% of Lambton County residents obtain their water from water treatment plants. These plants draw water from the head of the St. Clair River and from Lake Huron inlets located at Bright’s Grove and Grand Bend. Potable water (suitable for drinking) is pumped through some 350 km of pipeline, which extend throughout much of Lambton County.SLEA-Monograph-L2 The population that is not served by pipelines relies on either shallow dug wells or deep, drilled wells that tap the aquifer.
L3

Deep-well Storage in Salt Caverns

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From the early 1950s salt caverns located some 600 metres below the earth’s surface have been used for safe storage of hydrocarbons. Solution mining is used to construct these storage caverns in salt strata of the Download PDFSalina Formation.
L4

Waste Disposal – Surface Subsurface

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Practicing the four R’s – reduce, reuse, recycle and recover – decreases waste but no matter how successful these efforts, the problems of waste disposal will not be eliminated. Problems in the past asDownload PDFsociated with open dumps included unpleasant odours, fires, and movement of pollutants and disease-causing microorganisms from sites by rain and melted snow. Problems such as these are now addressed in the design, operation and monitoring of landfills.
L5

Wetland Treatment of Wastewater

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Wetlands may be defined as lands where water is near the ground surface long enough each year to maintain saturated soil conditions. These areas are often called by such names as marshes, swamps, bogs, fens, wet meadows, sloughs and river-overflow lands. Wetlands have received wastewater discharges from many different situations in the past, but only recently have they been recognized as potentially cost-efficient treatment systems.
W1

The St. Clair River – Chemical Monitoring

Biological monitoring techniques use living organisms to assess water quality and ecosystem health. Biomonitoring assumes that aquatic organisms are natural monitors of stresses placed on ecosystems and that responses to stresses are measurable. The St. Clair River contains several biological levels that form its aquatic community; these levels include bacteria, plankton, aquatic plants, benthic organisms and fish.
W2

The St. Clair River – Biomonitoring

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Biological monitoring techniques use living organisms to assess water quality and ecosystem health. Biomonitoring assumes that aquatic organisms are natural monitors of stresses placed on ecosystems and that responses to stresses are measurable. The St. Clair River contains several biological levels that form its aquatic community; these levels include bacteria, plankton, aquatic plants, benthic organisms and fish.
W3

Wastewater Treatment – Physical Chemical

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Fifty-six point sources discharge into the St. Clair River and its tributaries in Ontario and Michigan. These sources include thermal electric generating stationsDownload PDF, industrial plants, petroleum refineries, pulp and paper producers, food processors and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Clarification, coagulation, precipitation, air flotation, oxidation, neutralization and adsorption are methods used to separate wastes from water.
W4

Wastewater Treatment – Biological

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Microorganisms in aquatic systems feed on dissolved/suspended organic matter; their digestion processes decompose organic wastes. Breakdown of wastes is transferred from natural waterways to lagoons and/or vessels where conditions can be controlled so that decomposition occurs efficiently. Biological treatment is simply a concentrated, controlled, application of a natural process.